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Hydrology represents the surface water component of the water cycle, and is directly integrated with the ground water regime. Water budgets are completed for proposed developments to evaluate the changes to infiltration and runoff coefficients. These calculations are important since they quantify potential impacts to the natural environment.

Assimilative capacity studies evaluate potential contaminant release scenarios into a water course to identify appropriate effluent criteria to protect the natural environment. Streamflow data are estimated using Environment Canada gauging data from similar watersheds and are used to determine flow statistics for comparison to regulatory standards. Azimuth uses assimilative capacity studies to evaluate development limits that are based on predicted changes to water quality. These studies are relevant for lakeside and cottage developments, and for setting effluent criteria for sewage treatment plants.